What is Trimethylglycine?

Trimethylglycine (TMG), also known as betaine, is a naturally occurring compound present in foods like beets, spinach, and whole grains. Chemically derived from the amino acid glycine, it serves a crucial role as a methyl donor, contributing methyl groups to DNA, RNA, and proteins. This methyl donation is vital for gene expression regulation, detoxification, and the synthesis of neurotransmitters.

What are the benefits of Trimethylglycine?

Trimethylglycine (TMG) has been explored for potential health benefits, including:

  1. Cardiovascular health: TMG may lower homocysteine levels, linked to heart disease and stroke risk.
  2. Exercise performance: Studies suggest TMG may enhance muscular endurance and reduce muscle fatigue.
  3. Liver function: TMG may support liver health by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation.
  4. Cognitive function: Involved in neurotransmitter production, TMG may offer cognitive benefits and neuroprotection.
  5. Inflammation: TMG may have anti-inflammatory properties, contributing to overall inflammation reduction.
  6. Digestive health: TMG may support digestive health by promoting the growth of beneficial gut bacteria.

While research suggests potential benefits, more studies are required for a comprehensive understanding. As with any supplement, consultation with a healthcare provider is crucial, especially for individuals with underlying medical conditions or taking medications.

What research is on Trimethylglycine?

Research on Trimethylglycine (TMG) has explored its impact on cardiovascular health, athletic performance, liver health, cognitive function, and its potential in cancer treatment. While some studies indicate benefits, further research is necessary to understand its effects fully.

What is the mechanism of action of Trimethylglycine?

Trimethylglycine (TMG) acts as a methyl donor, transferring methyl groups to molecules like DNA, RNA, and proteins. This process is integral to various physiological functions, impacting gene expression, protein function, and cellular signaling. TMG's primary mechanism involves lowering homocysteine levels—a toxic amino acid linked to cardiovascular disease—by donating a methyl group to convert it into methionine. Additionally, TMG exhibits antioxidant properties, reduces inflammation, and may regulate cellular osmolarity.

While the exact mechanisms are complex and not fully understood, TMG's ability to act as a methyl donor and regulate cellular processes is thought to underlie its potential health benefits.

What is the typical dosage of Trimethylglycine?

The typical dosage of Trimethylglycine (TMG) varies based on its intended use. Dosages depend on factors like age, weight, health status, and the form of TMG (powder, capsules, liquid). Recommendations include:

  1. Cardiovascular health: 1.5 to 6 grams per day.
  2. Exercise performance: 1.25 to 6 grams per day.
  3. Liver health: 500 to 2500 milligrams per day.
  4. Cognitive function: 500 to 2000 milligrams per day.

Consultation with a healthcare professional is crucial to determine the appropriate dosage, considering individual factors. Higher doses may lead to side effects, such as gastrointestinal discomfort.

What food are rich in Trimethylglycine?

Trimethylglycine (TMG) is naturally found in various foods, including:

  1. Beets: About 100-200 milligrams per 100 grams of raw beets.
  2. Spinach: Approximately 80 milligrams per 100 grams of raw spinach.
  3. Quinoa: Roughly 70 milligrams per 100 grams of uncooked quinoa.
  4. Whole wheat: Around 15-20 milligrams per 100 grams of whole wheat flour.
  5. Seafood: Shellfish like shrimp and crab contain about 250-300 milligrams per 100 grams of cooked seafood.
  6. Meat: Beef and pork offer approximately 70-90 milligrams per 100 grams of cooked meat.
  7. Other vegetables: Sweet potatoes, broccoli, and asparagus also contain TMG.

While dietary sources provide TMG, achieving therapeutic doses may require supplementation in some cases.


Zhao, Guangfu et al. “Betaine in Inflammation: Mechanistic Aspects and Applications.” Frontiers in immunology vol. 9 1070. 24 May. 2018, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.01070