NMN (B-nicotinamide mononucleotide)

What is NMN?

NMN (B-nicotinamide mononucleotide) is a naturally occurring molecule present in all living cells. It is a nucleotide, composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar molecule, and a phosphate group. Synthesized from niacin (vitamin B3), NMN serves as a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+).

What are the benefits of NMN?

NMN has been studied for potential health benefits, particularly in aging and age-related diseases. Associated benefits include:

  1. Increased NAD+ levels: Acts as a precursor to NAD+, enhancing mitochondrial function, DNA repair, and gene expression.
  2. Improved glucose metabolism: Research suggests NMN supplementation may enhance glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes.
  3. Cardiovascular health: NMN may contribute to cardiovascular health by reducing inflammation, oxidative stress, improving blood vessel function, and lowering blood pressure.
  4. Neuroprotection: Shown to protect against age-related cognitive decline and neurodegeneration in animal studies.
  5. Anti-aging effects: Potential anti-aging effects by improving cellular metabolism, reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, and enhancing cellular repair mechanisms.

However, much of the research has been in animal studies, and more research is needed to understand NMN's effects in humans. NMN supplements are not FDA-approved for treating or preventing health conditions.

What research is on NMN?

Research on NMN has explored various aspects of health and aging, including anti-aging effects, cardiovascular health, neuroprotection, metabolic health, and exercise performance. While studies in animals and small human trials suggest potential benefits, more research is required for a comprehensive understanding of NMN's effects on human health.

What is the mechanism of action of NMN?

NMN's mechanism of action lies in its ability to increase NAD+ levels. As a precursor to NAD+, NMN undergoes enzymatic reactions, converting to nicotinamide riboside (NR), then to NMN, and finally to NAD+. Elevated NAD+ levels contribute to improved mitochondrial function, DNA repair, and gene expression, offering potential health benefits. The exact mechanisms are still under study, and more research is needed to understand the relationship between NMN and NAD+ levels.

What is the typical dosage of NMN?

An optimal NMN dosage hasn't been established as research on human health effects is ongoing. Studies have used dosages ranging from 100 mg to 2 g per day, but conclusive evidence is lacking. Consultation with a healthcare provider is crucial before considering NMN supplementation, considering individual health status and potential interactions with medications.

What foods are rich in NMN?

NMN is not found in significant amounts in food. However, some foods contain precursors to NAD+. Niacin-rich foods like meat, fish, poultry, and dairy products are converted to NAD+ in the body. Nicotinamide riboside (NR), a precursor to NMN, is found in trace amounts in milk and other foods. While these contribute to NAD+ levels, NMN or NR supplements are more effective for a significant increase in NAD+.


Nadeeshani, Harshani et al. “Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) as an anti-aging health product - Promises and safety concerns.” Journal of advanced research vol. 37 267-278. 11 Aug. 2021, doi:10.1016/j.jare.2021.08.003