Creatine Monohydrate

What is Creatine Monohydrate?

Creatine Monohydrate is a naturally occurring compound found in small amounts in foods like meat and fish. It is synthesized in the body from amino acids and stored in muscles, where it serves as a quick source of energy during high-intensity exercise.

What are the Benefits of Creatine Monohydrate?

Muscle Strength and Power: Creatine supplementation enhances ATP production in muscles, improving strength, power, and exercise performance.

Muscle Growth: It promotes muscle growth by increasing protein synthesis and cell volumization.

Recovery: Creatine helps reduce muscle damage and inflammation, speeding up recovery after intense workouts.

Cognitive Function: Some research suggests that creatine may support cognitive function and brain health, especially in vegetarians and older adults.

Bone Health: Emerging studies indicate that creatine may have benefits for bone health and osteoporosis prevention.

What Research is on Creatine Monohydrate?

Research on Creatine Monohydrate includes extensive studies on its effects on muscle performance and other health benefits:

  1. Athletic Performance: Numerous studies confirm that creatine supplementation improves strength, power output, and muscle endurance in athletes and fitness enthusiasts.
  2. Muscle Disorders: Creatine has shown promise in treating neuromuscular disorders like muscular dystrophy and improving muscle function in older adults.
  3. Metabolic Health: Research suggests that creatine may improve glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profiles, benefiting overall metabolic health.

What is the Mechanism of Action for Creatine Monohydrate?

ATP Regeneration: Creatine binds with phosphate to form phosphocreatine, which replenishes ATP stores during short bursts of intense exercise.

Muscle Cell Volumization: It draws water into muscle cells, increasing their size and protein synthesis, which contributes to muscle growth.

Neuroprotection: Creatine may provide neuroprotective effects by enhancing energy production in brain cells and reducing oxidative stress.

What is the Typical Dosage of Creatine Monohydrate?

Typical dosages of Creatine Monohydrate range from 3 grams to 5 grams per day, taken consistently to maintain muscle saturation levels. Some athletes use loading phases of 20 grams per day for the first week to quickly saturate muscles.

What Foods are Rich in Creatine Monohydrate?

Creatine Monohydrate is naturally found in small amounts in animal-based foods, including:

  1. Meat: Beef, pork, and poultry.
  2. Fish: Especially herring and salmon.
  3. Other Sources: Small amounts are also found in milk and eggs.


Candow, Darren G et al. “"Heads Up" for Creatine Supplementation and its Potential Applications for Brain Health and Function.” Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.) vol. 53,Suppl 1 (2023): 49-65. doi:10.1007/s40279-023-01870-9